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How To Change The Colour Of A Leather Sofa

How To Change The Colour Of A Leather Sofa


How To Change The Colour Of A Leather Sofa

This guide will show you how to change the colour of a leather sofa. We will be changing of a small seat from a light beige colour to maroon to demonstrate the correct procedure of changing the colour of leather.

A colour change can be made from any colour to another, i.e. black to white, or white to black, with just as successful results.

The leather colourant kit used in this guide can be used to change the colour of all leather, vinyl, plastic, PVC & leather cloth car interiors.

Leather Seat Before Colour Change

This photo shows a seat cushion we will be changing from beige to maroon.

Products Required

Leather Colourant Kit - Used to change the colour of leather


How to change the colour of a leather sofa guide - seat before prepping

How to change the colour of a leather sofa guide - seat after prepping

Step 1. Prep the Leather

The first step is preparing the leather ready for applications of colour. We do this to remove any waxes, oils or silicones that may be present on the leather, not removing these could cause adhesion problems. Prepping the leather also removes the manufactured finish. If the leather is very dirty, clean it first with the leather ultra clean or warm soapy water.

Do the back & sides first. A lot of furniture these days have finished splits on the back & sides and using a strong cleaner like the leather prep would strip the colour off so we won't be using it on the sides. For the sides all you need to do is wipe them down with some alcohol cleaner on a cloth. Not prepping the back and sides as thoroughly as the rest of the leather won't affect the end results, this is because the back and sides aren't really used and so come under no, or very little stress

Because the seating cushions and other areas come under more stress (wear & tear) it is more important to prepare them. To do this it is best to rub them with the leather prep and an abrasive pad, this application removes the leather finish. A good way to apply this is to place two cotton wool balls on the abrasive pad and then wet them in prep, fold the abrasive pad over the balls and then use it to rub the leather. This way applies the prep in the correct and sparing way making the product last longer.

Prepping the leather in this manner will remove any creased and cracked areas on the leather. So it not only makes the leather ready for colouring but it greatly improves its appearance. Any severe cracks can be filled using heavy filler.

The leather is correctly prepped when you start to see colour transfer from the leather onto the abrasive pad or cloth. This indicates that the finish has been removed exposing the colour beneath. Any distinctive creases in the leather may wear through quicker than other areas once colour is applied (this would only happen on a colour change job, and is just a maybe). To reduce the chance of this happening wet some fine grade sandpaper (320+) in leather prep and rub along the crease to reduce it. Then proceed to the next step.


How to change the colour of a leather car seat  - Clean the leather with leather cleaner

Step 2. Wipe the leather down with Alcohol Cleaner

The previous step will have removed the manufacturers finish and any silicones that are soluble in solvents. There are however some silicones like spray on polish and waxes that aren't soluble in solvents, and so to remove these we need to use the alcohol cleaner. After using the leather prep wipe the leather down with a cloth dampened in the alcohol cleaner and for ease of use you could also spray the alcohol cleaner directly onto the leather. Now wait 30 minutes for the cleaners to evaporate.


how to change the colour of a leather car seat guide - applying the first layer of colorant

Step 3. Apply the first layer of colourant

Shake the bottle of colourant for about 3 minutes to make sure it is well mixed. Pour a small amount onto a sponge and rub into the leather. The idea is to sponge on a thin coat of colour working it into any gaps, creases and hard to reach areas. Apply light pressure here to work the colourant into the grain. If you apply too much pressure you may get a foam of colour on the surface, this is not a problem, just wipe it away with the sponge (gently).

How to change the colour of a leather sofa - first coat of colourant applied.

The image to the left shows what the leather should look like after one application of colour. DO NOT try to achieve a perfect finish with the first coat.

The colourant dries naturally or you can speed it up with a hair drier. After applying one base coat, apply two more coats of colourant in the same way as before. You can actually achieve a good finish without even spraying any colour on! However it is best to spray some on as well.


How to change the colour of leather - Spraying on colourantDrying the colourant

Step 4. Spray on the colourant and leather finish

Wait 30 minutes for the colourant to thoroughly dry and then proceed to spray the colourant onto theleather. Set up your spray gun or airbrush and then spray the leather at a comfortable distance, being carefull not to over apply the colour. It is best to practice a bit on a piece of paper to get the hang of spraying first. Spray the colourant on in thin layers. This avoids runs and so makes for a nicer finish.

Because the colourant we're using is water based it takes a few minutes to dry. We therefore advise you to spray one area and then dry it using a hair drier. Doing it this way reduces the chance of runs. If you do see a run, just wipe it off with a cloth or sponge and then re-spray the area.

There is no right number of coats that should be applied to the leather. Spray on one coat and dry it off, then just keep spraying on a coat at a time until all the base colour is hidden. When you are happy that sufficient colourant has been applied, the Leather Finish should be sprayed on to the leather. First apply the glossy Super-Seal, in three-five coats, this forms the base of an incredibly flexible and durable finish. The glossy appearance, if unintended, will be altered to the desired finish with the application of the Leather Finish. 

After the super-seal has been given sufficient time to dry, the remaining leather finish should be applied, again using the entire contents of the bottle provided to cover the entire area in between three to five coats. Always remember to leave sufficient time for each coat to dry before applying the next.


The Finished Product

Coloured Leather Seat
Coloured Leather Seat Close Up

The above two images are of the seat thoroughly coloured. As standard the leather has a slight shine to it. This can be either increased using a gloss finish, matted down using a matt finish or kept the same using a satin finish. Our customer required a matt finish for this item, which is shown in the pictures below.

Finished Leather Seat
Finished Leather Seat Close Up

ALL COMMENTS

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9 days ago

Andrew Beadle-Rich

Hi there, I am considering attending your 1 day course as I need to renovate a set of vintage jaguar seats, is it appropriate to bring one along with me ? Kind regards - Andrew

7 days ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Andrew. Yes, as you can be shown how the products and procedures work and you can use the seat to do it as we show you. However, I may be able to advise you on the best products and procedures to restore your leather if you send me some photos. My email address is duncan.ashurst@furnitureclinic.co.uk I hope this helps. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

12 days ago

Helen

Hi I have 2 orange 2seater settees I want to go black my concern after dying them does the colour come off on your clothes

11 days ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Helen. As long as you use the kit as instructed, the leather will be colourfast after completing the colour change. Also, if you adapt a care regime thereafter, you will ensure that the leather stays in perfect condition for years to come. The leather colourant kits are designed to be as easy to use as possible, having been made specifically for amateur use. Our business was originally established to provide these kits to the general public. We have a lot of testimonials and user reviews on our website; it's always worth having a read. http://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Colourant_Kit_Reviews.htm There are also many reviews on the website where magazines have bought and used our kit with good results, and as a result, have written features on the kit. To see examples of the results people have achieved using the kits please see the before & after galleries on our Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/FurnitureClinic I hope this helps Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

19 days ago

Wayne

Hi, I have a full aniline white seatee and after 8 years it is yellowed and a few small stains. I am thinking of recolouring it to black, what would I need?

18 days ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Wayne. As per this tutorial, you will use the Leather Colourant Kit to change the colour of leather. https://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Colourant_Kit I hope this helps Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

28 days ago

beryl

hi I am trying to find someone to respray my leather lounge suite for me,do u know of anyone in Aberdeen Scotland I can contact.

28 days ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Beryl. If you click on the link below you’ll be able to submit an online quote request. One of our technicians will then contact you to make an appointment to ascertain the work involved and quote you accordingly. https://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Reupholstery_Repairs Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

1 month ago

Betty Carson

Need to change my cream sofa to caramel, will it be easy and how much,as I'm on a tight budget

1 month ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Betty Although the work isn't exactly skilled, it does require a certain amount of time and patience. We will provide full instructions with the kits, and it appears that you have already watched the tutorial. The kits are available in four sizes: Small ... footstool or cushion cover (£50.00) Medium ... armchair (£75.00) Large ... 3 seater sofa (£100.00) Extra Large ... full 3 piece suit (£125.00) There are also discount codes available online that can reduce the cost of these kits by 10%. I hope this helps Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

2 months ago

Rahela

Hi I would like to change my beds headboard colour. How many bottles would I need

2 months ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Rahela To change the colour of leather, you need a kit that contains everything to prepare the leather, recolour it and then seal the new colour onto the leather. We make these kits for the DIY market: Leather Colourant Kit ... https://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Colourant_Kit You may need to get the medium sized kit that will cover about 3-4 metres square. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

2 months ago

Natasha

Just quick question wot size or how many bottle's of dye would I need to change a three seater cream leather sofa black please

2 months ago

Furniture Clinic

HI Natasha You will need either the large or extra large colourant kit ... https://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Colourant_Kit Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

3 months ago

Grant

Hi there I have inherited 2 mint condition Milo baughman steel framed armchairs in white leather. There is quite a bit of metal frame and folds in the leather so spraying would be very difficult. I only really would like to take the edge of the white - make them look more cream/natural. Do you have any products or system that might achieve this ? many thanks

3 months ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Grant. If you send me some photos of the problem areas, I will advise you accordingly on what products to use and what procedures to follow to do that. duncan.ashurst@furnitureclinic.co.uk Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

4 months ago

Susan

Is it possible to dye a dark brown leather headboard into a creme coloured one?

4 months ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Susan. As long as it is leather, yes. You can change any colour leather to any colour using our Leather Colourant Kit. Leather Colourant Kit ... https://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Colourant_Kit If you are not dealing with full leather, you will have to create more adhesion as our colourants are designed to key into the top surface of the leather. To do this you will also need to purchase our Adhesion promoter and Cross Linker X. You need to mix 10% of cross linker x into the adhesion promoter for it to work to its full capability, and apply it to the clean vinyl surface prior to applying the colourant. You can also add 10% of the Cross Linker X into the leather finish (included in the kit) to make the finish much stronger and more durable. Adhesion Promoter: http://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Adhesion_Promoter.php Cross Linker X: http://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Cross_Linker_X.php Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

4 months ago

Chris

I have wooden dining chairs with beige leather seats and backs and large nailhead trim. How would I avoid staining the wood and nail heads when applying the colorant?

4 months ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Chris. The Colourant will wipe off the metal buttons/nail heads. As for the wood, you will just have to mask it off. I hope this helps. Please do not hesitate in contacting if we can be of any further assistance. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

5 months ago

Anne Quinn

I would like to dye cream leather footstool to dark grey. The measurements are 20. X18 inches. What size of the all-in-one colourant would I need. I was recommended to use Methylated spirit to prepare leather before using dye. Does the spray gun come with colourant or can I use sponge/cloth?

4 months ago

Furniture Clinic

HI Anne. I would not recommend using mentholated spirit on leather. Nor would I recommend using an "all in one product" to change the colour of leather. We make a very popular kit for changing the colour of leather ... https://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Colourant_Kit. You have actually submitted a question on the tutorial that shows you exactly what products to use and what procedures to follow to change the colour of a piece of leather furniture. This tutorial has been specially made to show you the correct way of doing it to ensure the longevity of the colour change. Should you require any further assistance, please do not hesitate in contacting me at the office. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

6 months ago

Graham Jones

Must I use a spray gun? Can a cloth do the same finish?

6 months ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Graham. It is recommended that you use the airbrush included for the colourant, superseal and finish. It ensures that you achieve an even coating of the products, and cause smearing. You can apply the finish with a cloth, but you will have to be very careful not to get smear marks in it. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

6 months ago

Sharon Stratford

I would like to dye/paint my small leather chesterfield sofa a metalic pewter or silver is there metalic leather dye/paint available???

7 months ago

louise

hello, does the dye absorb into the leather or does it leave a coating on the surface? how does it wear on a sofa as i am concerned it may peel off after use? also i have a cream leather sofa and would like to change the colour as it is very discoloured and dirty - how easy is it?

7 months ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Louise. If you are wanting to change the colour of the leather, you will be better off using the Leather Colourant Kit. They contain specially developed polyurethane based paints that ensure that the colour change is permanent and colourfast. The dyes, are another colouring product usually used for professionals to colour untreated leathers. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

8 months ago

Angela

Would deep red be ok to change to black,?

8 months ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Angela. Using the colourant kit, you can turn any colour leather into any colour, without the original colour showing through. I hope this helps. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

8 months ago

Julie Jeffrey

Hi there, i'd like to dye my chocolate brown sofa, do you think i could use a dark grey on it?

8 months ago

Furniture Clinic

HI Julie. Yes, brown to grey will be fine and work great. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

9 months ago

Fiona

Do you need to spray it on or could you just use the sponge? I have a headboard with a leather section which I woul like to change the colour of

9 months ago

Furniture Clinic

HI Fiona. You can apply the colourant and finishes with a sponge, but be very careful that you do not get smear marks in the colourant or finish. We include a self propelled airbrush in the colourant kit to ensure that you achieve a nice smooth and even coverage of the products. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

9 months ago

Kristin

Hi, I recently bought a dining table with marble top and 8 black leather chairs. The chairs look far too dark for the room and therefore I would like to make a lighter colour, like beige. What would be your recommendation? The chairs are studded so I want to avoid colouring them (or clean off colour afterwards). Appreciate your advice.

9 months ago

Furniture Clinic

HI Kristin As per this video tutorial, the colourant kit is used to either restore or change the colour of leather. Leather Colourant kit ... https://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Colourant_Kit.php Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

9 months ago

Katalin

Having read the instructions I'm very doubtful that this product would dye our aniline three piece suite successfully. Although your product description confirms it is suitable for aniline leather. Please confirm it IS suitable for aniline as we would need to dye the entire suite due to darkened grease marks on settee which we've tried but cannot get rid of. Also would you be able suggest a professional to do the dying for us? Thank you.

9 months ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Katalin. You want to remove the grease stains, rather that colour the rest of the furniture to match it. The Leather Degreaser has been specifically developed for this reason ... https://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Degreaser.php Then, for Aniline leather, I would recommend the Leather Recolouring Balm to restore the colour ... https://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Recolouring_Balm.php. To protect the leather from future staining and colour loss, apply the protection cream on a regular basis ... https://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Protection_Cream.php Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

10 months ago

Zoe

Hi, I'm looking to dye a drown chesterfield rocker oxblood to match sofa, the sofa has the traditional black creases, if that makes sense - how do I achieve this effect please? Many thanks :)

9 months ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Zoe. If you send me some photos of the problem areas, I will advise you accordingly on what products to use and what procedures to follow to restore your leather. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

10 months ago

Katie

What size kit would I need to change a green reclining armchair to brown please? Thank you.

10 months ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Katie. The medium sized colourant kit should be enough to cover a full armchair, where the large will do a sofa.

1 year ago

steven

hi i have a three piece suite, and i would like to change the colour . but i have a broken shoulder , so am wondering how much it would cost to do it professionally .

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Steven. If you click on the link below you’ll see the location of our UK branches. Please find your nearest one and give them a call; I am sure that they will be happy to help you. http://furnitureclinic.co.uk/UK_Branches.php Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

1 year ago

Nick

Hi, I have inherited my Grandads leather armchair which my Aunty had reupholstered in a caramel colour leather, is there a kit you do to darken it up? I would like it to match an existing chocolate colour chair I have. Thanks Nick

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Nick. You can use this kit to change any colour leather to any colour. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

1 year ago

Anna

Hi we would like to lighten a tobacco/dark tan coloured aniline leather sofa to a paler light tan/beige - can this be done?

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Anna. Yes. The procedures for changing the colour of leather are in fact the same as restoring the colour. Also, as you will be using specialised leather paints to do so, you can tunr any colour leather into any colour. Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

1 year ago

Keri Drake

What product did you use to get a matt finish?

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Keri. We make a great kit containing the finish you require (choose matt from the drop down menu) and a DIY spray kit to ensure a smooth and even coverage of the finish. Have a look at the below link ... https://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Finish_Kit.php Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

1 year ago

Judi

I have a medium brown leather couch. The back, except for one panel, has faded dramatically to an almost blonde color. How do we dye the remaining panels to best match.

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Judi. The first thing to do would be to find out what type of leather you have. You can do this by putting a few drops of water on the surface and waiting a short while to see if these soak in or not. If they do then you will be able to use a Leather Recolouring Balm to restore the colour, but if not, you would need either a Leather Touch Up Kit (for small areas) or a Leather Colourant Kit (for larger areas). A large area can be defined as anything larger than a tennis ball. For more information on different leather types please visit the following page of our website: http://www.furnitureclinic.co.uk/Leather_Types.php If you send me some photos of the problem areas, I will advise you accordingly on what products to use and what procedures to follow to restore your leather. duncan.ashurst@furnitureclinic.co.uk Kind Regards Duncan Ashurst Senior Sales Advisor

1 year ago

Petros

Hi, I have some custom colour for 5+ years on the shelf. It is in a sealed bottle and I can see it now it has split into different parts. Would it be ok to use it if I mix them by shaking the bottle?

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

If the colourant has not been shaken regularly within these five years then it is unlikely that you will be able to restore it to a able state. It's important when storing the colourant to shake the bottles now and then to prevent the pigments from settling.

1 year ago

Andy

Hi, I recently changed the colour of my car seats from black to tan using the exact process as described above. However, I found that after sitting on them a couple of times the paint started to crack in some areas exposing the original black colour underneath. Before I applied the new colour, I made a concerted effort to make sure I removed all the existing finish from the black seat as I knew that if I didn't I'd be faced with problems but it still cracked anyway. Any ideas on why this happened or how best to rectify it?

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Andy. If you send me some photos of the problem areas, I will advise you accordingly on what products to use and what procedures to follow to rectify that problem. duncan.ashurst@furnitureclinic.co.uk

1 year ago

BAri

Hi can you achieve a good finish with a sponge rather than with a spray? removing seats seem difficult

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi The finish can be applied by sponge but you generally get a better result using the airgun. The airgun allows a more even coat to be applied and avoids unsightly brush strokes or sponge marks.

1 year ago

Mimi

Do you have a Canadian office? I would like to purchase a few of your products for my couch. What would I need for a couch that is both leather and vinyl?

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Mimi, Our USA sister company, Furniture Clinic Inc. ship products direct to Canada. You can order from their website at www.furnitureclinic.com. Thanks, Jordan.

1 year ago

Zaima

Hi Which size of leather colourant kit would I need to change the colour of a large 3 seater sofa? Would changing the colour also remove the cracks and marks on it?

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Generally the large kit is enough for a sofa. The kit will mend minor cracks but for more severe cracking it's worth getting the Flexifil or Heavy Filler as well. As for marks on the leather, it's a good idea to clean the leather with the Leather Care Kit.

1 year ago

Serena

Hi Can you change a dark green leather chair to dark brown?

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Yes, this can be done with a Leather Colourant Kit

1 year ago

Karen

What product should I use to fade/lighten 2 orange chairs? The orange is too strong and contrasting for the space we have. The leather is of the matt type.

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi You can change the colour of the leather using a Leather Colourant Kit. You can change the colour of the leather to any colour.

1 year ago

plndchr

Can you tell me how much leather dye l would need for changing the colour of a large leather chair?

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi The Leather Dye is not suitable for changing the colour of leather. For this would need a Leather Colournat Kit. For an average armchair the medium kit is enough, but for a large chair you may need the large kit.

1 year ago

debbie grindell

We have just bought the leather dying kit but the air gun has stopped working any tips how do get it working or can u send us a new one.

1 year ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Debbie Please refer to the advice leaflet with the kit. If this fails to help please contact our office.

2 years ago

Lou Robinson

Hi, I have a black faded leather saddle which has been bleached by the sun, I have tried the coloured balm and this hasn't worked would the dye kit work or would you recommend something else. Many thanks. Lou

2 years ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi The leather dyes are only for colouring new leather, so I wouldn't recommend it for this situation. However, we have a Leather Colourant Kit which would be suitable.

2 years ago

Alex

Hi how long you think the new colour/paint will last on a sofa?And will the new paint not crack when you seat on? Regards

2 years ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi The colourant flexes with the leather so it will not crack when you sit on on. Eventually the colourant will wear off but it will last as long as new leather under the same stresses and levels of use.

2 years ago

julie

Hi could you please tell me what size kit I would need to change a double leather bed from cream to black please

2 years ago

Furniture Clinic

I'd recommend the extra large kit.

2 years ago

Neil.

How much product do I need to buy I have 1 large 3 seater sofa 1 large 2 seater and a large single lounger.I want to dye it is not in bad condition but does have a slight stain which looks unsightly. I think people have sat on with sun cream on and sun cream has stained the leather. I need the cleaner + dye and finisher. Neil.

2 years ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi For the stain you'd need the Leather Degreaser. How much of this you'll need depends how much oil is in there and it can be difficult to tell in advance. I'd recommend starting with one tub. In most cases this is enough. For the colour I'd recommend a Leather Colourant Kit. Typically, the extra large kit is enough to cover a three piece suite.

2 years ago

Helen Button

Hi i have a dark brown sleigh bed and would like to take it down several shades to beige or white - is this possible? Helen

2 years ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Yes, you can change leather to any colour you wish using one of our Leather Colourant Kits.

2 years ago

Kayla

Hello can you change a green leather sofa to Black? If so how thanks

2 years ago

Furniture Clinic

Hi Kayla You certainly can. We have a Leather Coloutant Kit which you can use to do this. You can change to any colour at all.

2 years ago

regina Santos

I have a sectional 7 seats couch (l Shape) real leather , I just love it! But it's showing old , I want to keep the same color , and Want to buy the paint and finishing for my couch. Where can I find it? do you have any sotore where I can visit and learn more about it? Thank you, Regina , Florida USA

2 years ago

Furniture Clinic

Hello Regina Thank you for your enquiry. Our US office will be able to advise on the best products to use. You can call (866) 931-8095 or visit www.furnitureclinic.com If you know what type of leather your couch is (absorbent or not), this will help to know which products to use. You can find out if your leather is absorbent by pouring a drop of water on a small part of the couch. If it soaks in after about 10 seconds, it is absorbent. Absorbent leather can require different products to non absorbent items.